ShootOuts 
Introduction The 2006 World Cup has moved into the knockout phase which means every match must produce a winner  even if it means going to extratime and possibly the dreaded penalty shootout. England fans know all too well the pain of losing in a penalty shootout. In 4 of the last 7 major tournaments that England has competed in, they have been eliminated by way of a penalty shootout. Hopefully they have practiced their penalties for this World Cup! How Penalty ShootOuts Work If the score of the match is level at the end of extratime, then the tie is decided by a penalty shootout. Each team nominates 5 players to take penalties. The sides then take it in turns to take their penalties. The team who has converted the most penalties after 5 each have been taken is the winner. If during the shootout, one team establishes an unassailable lead, the shootout is over at that point and that side is declared the winner, even if all 5 penalties for each side have not yet been taken. If after 5 penalties for each side, the scores are level, the shootout then enters 'sudden death'. Now each team must match the other team's effort or they lose. A new player must take each penalty in 'sudden death' (until all players have taken a penalty when the order then returns to the start again). More information about the rules of penalty shootouts can be found at fifaworldcup.yahoo.com/06/en/w/doc.html 
Activity 1 Use the Penalty ShootOut simulator above to simulate 20 times a penalty shootout in which each team has a probability of 0.5 of scoring.

Activity 2 Use the Penalty ShootOut simulator above to simulate 20 times a penalty shootout in which one team (England) has a probability of 0.5 of scoring and the other team (Portugal) has a probability of 0.6 of scoring.

Activity 3 You will need two people for this simulation. Assign a probability to each of the players on each side. You can choose a value between 0.3 and 0.7 but the overall average for each team should be 0.5. Choose the order of the penalty takers for your team and simulate the penaly shootout 10 times. Is there a best strategy for using the players?

Activity 4 Generate some more penalty shootout simulations choosing your own teams and the probailities for each player to score their penalty. Investigate an effective method for winning shootouts. 